Strategic Energy Management

Strategic Energy Management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations,...

SEM programs fall on a continuum, from those meeting the minimum elements noted above to those that also meet or exceed the requirements of the ISO...

This protocol’s objective is to help program evaluators and administrators accurately assess the gross energy savings of utility SEM programs. This...

For the purpose of providing guidance about evaluating SEM programs, this protocol differentiates between three categories of SEM programs. The first...

Two existing evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) protocols address estimation of energy savings from utility SEM programs in large...

This section provides a brief overview of the recommended approach for estimating SEM program energy savings; it then describes the step-by-step...

Facility energy savings or changes in energy use intensity from SEM should be estimated by comparing the facility’s metered energy use (or energy use...

Research design involves developing the approach for selecting the analysis sample, collecting data, and estimating the savings. Evaluators should...

As part of the research design, the evaluator also should define the energy consumption boundaries of each facility. As noted above, the facility is...

The evaluator should identify the facility’s consumption of different energy types or fuels (e.g., electricity, natural gas, fuel oil), the sources...

During development of the research design, evaluators should conduct a statistical power analysis to determine the study’s likelihood of detecting...

This protocol recommends using regression analysis to estimate the adjusted baseline because regression can account for changes in factors affecting...

Evaluators should collect data on energy consumption during the SEM baseline and reporting periods for all energy sources that the SEM program will...

Evaluators should collect data on the principal drivers of facility energy consumption. In industrial facilities, the principal energy consumption...

At a minimum, evaluators need to collect sufficient information about the program’s implementation; so the baseline and reporting periods can be...

After reviewing SEM documentation, the evaluator may have outstanding questions about the facility’s operations, energy consumption, or SEM...

The baseline period should be sufficiently long to cover the range of operating conditions that the facility experienced during SEM implementation...

An important issue for programs running for longer than one year concerns the validity of the original baseline. This protocol recommends that...

Next, the evaluator will need to specify the regression model for the facility’s energy consumption. This involves defining the dependent variable...

The model dependent variable either will be facility energy consumption per unit of time (e.g., day, week, month) or facility energy consumption...

The energy consumption regression model specification should be determined on the basis of engineering knowledge about the facility’s energy...

Specifying the model also requires making assumptions about the properties of the error term. The error term represents influence of unobserved...

After determining the model specification, the evaluator should select a method for estimating the model. Knowledge about the properties of the...

The evaluator should use the estimated regression to estimate the adjusted baseline and then to estimate savings as the difference between the...

This protocol focuses on estimating overall energy savings from SEM activities, whether from OM&B measures or from capital and retrofit projects....

Evaluators should report point estimates of SEM savings for the reporting period and standard errors or confidence intervals to indicate the savings...

This protocol recommends statistical analysis of facility energy consumption to estimate SEM program savings. This section provides guidance about...

Two regression-based methods consistent with Option C of the IPMVP can be used for SEM savings estimation: • Forecast model regression ...

With forecasting, the evaluator estimates a facility energy consumption regression with baseline period data and then uses the estimated regression...

The following example illustrates the application of the forecast approach for estimating SEM program facility savings. Table 1 shows monthly...

In the preceding example, the evaluator used information about energy consumption during the baseline period to estimate the forecasted adjusted...

An alternative to the forecast approach is to use baseline period and reporting period data to estimate the facility average energy savings per time...

Evaluators may want to estimate savings for multiple periods to obtain savings estimates for different program years or to track growth, persistence,...

Equation 3 assumes that SEM resulted in a level-shift in facility energy consumption. In other words, SEM’s impact did not depend on output, weather,...

This section illustrates a pre-post regression savings estimation, using data from the above example of a forecast regression savings estimation. ...

The forecast and pre-post models take different approaches to estimating savings. The forecast approach fits a model using data from the baseline...

To this point, the protocol has emphasized regression analysis of individual SEM facility energy consumption because most industrial and many large...

Evaluators may need to make non-routine adjustments to the adjusted baseline to estimate savings. A non-routine adjustment refers to a one-time, ad...

Thus far, this protocol has assumed that evaluators would not perform primary data collection. Evaluators would analyze data on facility energy...

Some SEM programs may enroll a large number of facilities, but they have evaluation budgets too small to support an impact evaluation of the...

This protocol is primarily concerned with estimation of SEM program gross savings using a regression-adjusted baseline. The issues and approach for...

Agnew, K.; Goldberg, M. (April 2013.) Chapter 8: Whole-Building Retrofit with Consumption Data Analysis Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods...

This appendix demonstrates the equivalence of the forecast savings and pre-post model approaches, showing that both produce unbiased savings...

Suppose the following regression model describes facility electricity use in the baseline period: During the SEM reporting period, the facility...

The reporting period energy savings S can be estimated using the pre-post method or the forecast method. This section shows that the pre-post and...

The first approach nests both Equation A.1 and Equation A.2 in a single model, thereby obtaining the pre-post model; and then estimates the...

A second approach for estimating savings is the forecast method. Using data from t=1, 2, …, T periods during the baseline period, the researcher...

This section first derives the formula for the standard error of savings during interval t of the reporting period: This derivation shows that...

BPA Bonneville Power Administration Btu British thermal unit CDD Cooling degree day DOE Department of Energy EM&V Evaluation,...

Download the revised Strategic Energy Management protocol in a clean version and track changes, and responses to comments.