Sections 1 to 51 of 51

Uniform Methods Project Comment Process: Strategic Energy Management

Strategic Energy Management

  1. 1. Measure Description

    Strategic Energy Management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations,...

    Strategic Energy Management (SEM) focuses on achieving energy-efficiency improvements through systematic and planned changes in facility operations,...
  2. 1.1 ISO 50001: A Configured Energy Management System (EnMS)

    SEM programs fall on a continuum, from those meeting the minimum elements noted above to those that also meet or exceed the requirements of the ISO...

    SEM programs fall on a continuum, from those meeting the minimum elements noted above to those that also meet or exceed the requirements of the ISO...
  3. 1.2 Protocol Objective

    This protocol’s objective is to help program evaluators and administrators accurately assess the gross energy savings of utility SEM programs. This...

    This protocol’s objective is to help program evaluators and administrators accurately assess the gross energy savings of utility SEM programs. This...
  4. 2. Application Conditions of Protocol

    For the purpose of providing guidance about evaluating SEM programs, this protocol differentiates between three categories of SEM programs. The first...

    For the purpose of providing guidance about evaluating SEM programs, this protocol differentiates between three categories of SEM programs. The first...
  5. 2.1 Relationship to Existing and Forthcoming Evaluation Protocols

    Two existing evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) protocols address estimation of energy savings from utility SEM programs in large...

    Two existing evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) protocols address estimation of energy savings from utility SEM programs in large...
  6. 3. Savings Calculations

    This section provides a brief overview of the recommended approach for estimating SEM program energy savings; it then describes the step-by-step...

    This section provides a brief overview of the recommended approach for estimating SEM program energy savings; it then describes the step-by-step...
  7. 3.1 Overview of SEM Facility Savings Estimation

    Facility energy savings or changes in energy use intensity from SEM should be estimated by comparing the facility’s metered energy use (or energy use...

    Facility energy savings or changes in energy use intensity from SEM should be estimated by comparing the facility’s metered energy use (or energy use...
  8. 3.2 Develop Research Design

    Research design involves developing the approach for selecting the analysis sample, collecting data, and estimating the savings. Evaluators should...

    Research design involves developing the approach for selecting the analysis sample, collecting data, and estimating the savings. Evaluators should...
  9. 3.2.1 Defining the Facility and Energy Consumption Boundaries

    As part of the research design, the evaluator also should define the energy consumption boundaries of each facility. As noted above, the facility is...

    As part of the research design, the evaluator also should define the energy consumption boundaries of each facility. As noted above, the facility is...
  10. 3.2.2 Identify On-Site Energy Uses

    The evaluator should identify the facility’s consumption of different energy types or fuels (e.g., electricity, natural gas, fuel oil), the sources...

    The evaluator should identify the facility’s consumption of different energy types or fuels (e.g., electricity, natural gas, fuel oil), the sources...
  11. 3.2.3 Conduct Statistical Power Analysis

    During development of the research design, evaluators should conduct a statistical power analysis to determine the study’s likelihood of detecting...

    During development of the research design, evaluators should conduct a statistical power analysis to determine the study’s likelihood of detecting...
  12. 3.3 Collect and Prepare Required Data

    This protocol recommends using regression analysis to estimate the adjusted baseline because regression can account for changes in factors affecting...

    This protocol recommends using regression analysis to estimate the adjusted baseline because regression can account for changes in factors affecting...
  13. 3.3.1 Energy Consumption Data

    Evaluators should collect data on energy consumption during the SEM baseline and reporting periods for all energy sources that the SEM program will...

    Evaluators should collect data on energy consumption during the SEM baseline and reporting periods for all energy sources that the SEM program will...
  14. 3.3.2 Variables Affecting Facility Energy Consumption

    Evaluators should collect data on the principal drivers of facility energy consumption. In industrial facilities, the principal energy consumption...

    Evaluators should collect data on the principal drivers of facility energy consumption. In industrial facilities, the principal energy consumption...
  15. 3.3.3 SEM Program-Related Facility Activities

    At a minimum, evaluators need to collect sufficient information about the program’s implementation; so the baseline and reporting periods can be...

    At a minimum, evaluators need to collect sufficient information about the program’s implementation; so the baseline and reporting periods can be...
  16. 3.3.4 Facility Energy Manager or SEM Implementer Interviews

    After reviewing SEM documentation, the evaluator may have outstanding questions about the facility’s operations, energy consumption, or SEM...

    After reviewing SEM documentation, the evaluator may have outstanding questions about the facility’s operations, energy consumption, or SEM...
  17. 3.4 Define Baseline and Reporting periods

    The baseline period should be sufficiently long to cover the range of operating conditions that the facility experienced during SEM implementation...

    The baseline period should be sufficiently long to cover the range of operating conditions that the facility experienced during SEM implementation...
  18. 3.4.1 Redefining the Facility Baseline

    An important issue for programs running for longer than one year concerns the validity of the original baseline. This protocol recommends that...

    An important issue for programs running for longer than one year concerns the validity of the original baseline. This protocol recommends that...
  19. 3.5 Specify Energy Consumption Regression Model

    Next, the evaluator will need to specify the regression model for the facility’s energy consumption. This involves defining the dependent variable...

    Next, the evaluator will need to specify the regression model for the facility’s energy consumption. This involves defining the dependent variable...
  20. 3.5.1 Selecting the Dependent Variable

    The model dependent variable either will be facility energy consumption per unit of time (e.g., day, week, month) or facility energy consumption...

    The model dependent variable either will be facility energy consumption per unit of time (e.g., day, week, month) or facility energy consumption...
  21. 3.5.2 Selecting Independent Variables

    The energy consumption regression model specification should be determined on the basis of engineering knowledge about the facility’s energy...

    The energy consumption regression model specification should be determined on the basis of engineering knowledge about the facility’s energy...
  22. 3.5.3 Model Error

    Specifying the model also requires making assumptions about the properties of the error term. The error term represents influence of unobserved...

    Specifying the model also requires making assumptions about the properties of the error term. The error term represents influence of unobserved...
  23. 3.6 Fitting the Model

    After determining the model specification, the evaluator should select a method for estimating the model. Knowledge about the properties of the...

    After determining the model specification, the evaluator should select a method for estimating the model. Knowledge about the properties of the...
  24. 3.7 Estimating and Documenting Savings

    The evaluator should use the estimated regression to estimate the adjusted baseline and then to estimate savings as the difference between the...

    The evaluator should use the estimated regression to estimate the adjusted baseline and then to estimate savings as the difference between the...
  25. 3.7.1 Estimating Savings Attributable to OM&B Measures

    This protocol focuses on estimating overall energy savings from SEM activities, whether from OM&B measures or from capital and retrofit projects....

    This protocol focuses on estimating overall energy savings from SEM activities, whether from OM&B measures or from capital and retrofit projects....
  26. 3.8 Reporting Results

    Evaluators should report point estimates of SEM savings for the reporting period and standard errors or confidence intervals to indicate the savings...

    Evaluators should report point estimates of SEM savings for the reporting period and standard errors or confidence intervals to indicate the savings...
  27. 4. Measurement and Verification Methods

    This protocol recommends statistical analysis of facility energy consumption to estimate SEM program savings. This section provides guidance about...

    This protocol recommends statistical analysis of facility energy consumption to estimate SEM program savings. This section provides guidance about...
  28. 4.1 Regression and Savings Estimation Methods

    Two regression-based methods consistent with Option C of the IPMVP can be used for SEM savings estimation: • Forecast model regression ...

    Two regression-based methods consistent with Option C of the IPMVP can be used for SEM savings estimation: • Forecast model regression ...
  29. 4.1.1 Forecast Approach

    With forecasting, the evaluator estimates a facility energy consumption regression with baseline period data and then uses the estimated regression...

    With forecasting, the evaluator estimates a facility energy consumption regression with baseline period data and then uses the estimated regression...
  30. 4.1.1.1 Forecast Example

    The following example illustrates the application of the forecast approach for estimating SEM program facility savings. Table 1 shows monthly...

    The following example illustrates the application of the forecast approach for estimating SEM program facility savings. Table 1 shows monthly...
  31. 4.1.2 Backcast Models

    In the preceding example, the evaluator used information about energy consumption during the baseline period to estimate the forecasted adjusted...

    In the preceding example, the evaluator used information about energy consumption during the baseline period to estimate the forecasted adjusted...
  32. 4.1.3 Pre-Post Model

    An alternative to the forecast approach is to use baseline period and reporting period data to estimate the facility average energy savings per time...

    An alternative to the forecast approach is to use baseline period and reporting period data to estimate the facility average energy savings per time...
  33. 4.1.3.1 Estimating SEM Savings in Multiple Sub-Periods

    Evaluators may want to estimate savings for multiple periods to obtain savings estimates for different program years or to track growth, persistence,...

    Evaluators may want to estimate savings for multiple periods to obtain savings estimates for different program years or to track growth, persistence,...
  34. 4.1.3.2 Estimating SEM Savings as a Function of Output or Weather

    Equation 3 assumes that SEM resulted in a level-shift in facility energy consumption. In other words, SEM’s impact did not depend on output, weather,...

    Equation 3 assumes that SEM resulted in a level-shift in facility energy consumption. In other words, SEM’s impact did not depend on output, weather,...
  35. 4.1.3.3 Pre-Post Regression Example

    This section illustrates a pre-post regression savings estimation, using data from the above example of a forecast regression savings estimation. ...

    This section illustrates a pre-post regression savings estimation, using data from the above example of a forecast regression savings estimation. ...
  36. 4.1.4 Comparison of Forecast and Pre-Post Approaches

    The forecast and pre-post models take different approaches to estimating savings. The forecast approach fits a model using data from the baseline...

    The forecast and pre-post models take different approaches to estimating savings. The forecast approach fits a model using data from the baseline...
  37. 4.1.5 Panel Regression Analysis

    To this point, the protocol has emphasized regression analysis of individual SEM facility energy consumption because most industrial and many large...

    To this point, the protocol has emphasized regression analysis of individual SEM facility energy consumption because most industrial and many large...
  38. 4.2 Non-Routine Adjustments

    Evaluators may need to make non-routine adjustments to the adjusted baseline to estimate savings. A non-routine adjustment refers to a one-time, ad...

    Evaluators may need to make non-routine adjustments to the adjusted baseline to estimate savings. A non-routine adjustment refers to a one-time, ad...
  39. 4.3 Site Data Collection

    Thus far, this protocol has assumed that evaluators would not perform primary data collection. Evaluators would analyze data on facility energy...

    Thus far, this protocol has assumed that evaluators would not perform primary data collection. Evaluators would analyze data on facility energy...
  40. 5. Other Evaluation Issues

    Some SEM programs may enroll a large number of facilities, but they have evaluation budgets too small to support an impact evaluation of the...

    Some SEM programs may enroll a large number of facilities, but they have evaluation budgets too small to support an impact evaluation of the...
  41. 5.1 Sampling

    Some SEM programs may enroll a large number of facilities, but they have evaluation budgets too small to support an impact evaluation of the...

    Some SEM programs may enroll a large number of facilities, but they have evaluation budgets too small to support an impact evaluation of the...
  42. 5.2 Free-ridership, Spillover, and Net Savings

    This protocol is primarily concerned with estimation of SEM program gross savings using a regression-adjusted baseline. The issues and approach for...

    This protocol is primarily concerned with estimation of SEM program gross savings using a regression-adjusted baseline. The issues and approach for...
  43. 6. References

    Agnew, K.; Goldberg, M. (April 2013.) Chapter 8: Whole-Building Retrofit with Consumption Data Analysis Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods...

    Agnew, K.; Goldberg, M. (April 2013.) Chapter 8: Whole-Building Retrofit with Consumption Data Analysis Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods...
  44. 7. Appendix

    This appendix demonstrates the equivalence of the forecast savings and pre-post model approaches, showing that both produce unbiased savings...

    This appendix demonstrates the equivalence of the forecast savings and pre-post model approaches, showing that both produce unbiased savings...
  45. 7.1 Definition of SEM Savings

    Suppose the following regression model describes facility electricity use in the baseline period: During the SEM reporting period, the facility...

    Suppose the following regression model describes facility electricity use in the baseline period: During the SEM reporting period, the facility...
  46. 7.2 Equivalency of Pre-Post and Forecast Savings Methods

    The reporting period energy savings S can be estimated using the pre-post method or the forecast method. This section shows that the pre-post and...

    The reporting period energy savings S can be estimated using the pre-post method or the forecast method. This section shows that the pre-post and...
  47. 7.2.1 Pre-Post Method

    The first approach nests both Equation A.1 and Equation A.2 in a single model, thereby obtaining the pre-post model; and then estimates the...

    The first approach nests both Equation A.1 and Equation A.2 in a single model, thereby obtaining the pre-post model; and then estimates the...
  48. 7.2.2 Forecast Method

    A second approach for estimating savings is the forecast method. Using data from t=1, 2, …, T periods during the baseline period, the researcher...

    A second approach for estimating savings is the forecast method. Using data from t=1, 2, …, T periods during the baseline period, the researcher...
  49. 7.3 Standard Error of Forecast Method Savings

    This section first derives the formula for the standard error of savings during interval t of the reporting period: This derivation shows that...

    This section first derives the formula for the standard error of savings during interval t of the reporting period: This derivation shows that...
  50. Acronyms

    BPA Bonneville Power Administration Btu British thermal unit CDD Cooling degree day DOE Department of Energy EM&V Evaluation,...

    BPA Bonneville Power Administration Btu British thermal unit CDD Cooling degree day DOE Department of Energy EM&V Evaluation,...
  51. Strategic Energy Management: Download the pdf here

    Download the revised Strategic Energy Management protocol in a clean version and track changes, and responses to comments.

    Download the revised Strategic Energy Management protocol in a clean version and track changes, and responses to comments.